top of page
Search
  • Writer's pictureChapman Chen

All those Fishy Stories about Jesus the Vegan Christ. By Dr. Chapman Chen, HKBNews



 

Executive Summary: Instances of Jesus the Vegan Christ eating fish or helping His disciples to catch fish in the gospels are all products of either misinterpretation or later interpolation (cf. Chen 2023, 2022a, 2022b, 2020). I. Jesus miraculously aided Peter and his folk to catch a huge net of fish (Luke 5:1-11)? But Jesus then asked them to FORSAKE their NETS, follow Him and CATCH MEN INSTEAD OF FISH. Matthew 4:18-20 and Mark 1:16-18 also record this story albeit without the first part. II. Jesus directed Peter to go hook a fish and dig a coin from her/his mouth in order to pay a temple tax (Matthew 17:24-27)? This could not be real for, firstly, it was never executed; secondly, it's improbable that Jesus would have performed a complex miracle in order to pay his own tax; thirdly, how could Jesus, who died for animal liberation (Akers 2000), have had the heart to order his disciple to do such a cruel thing to an innocent fish? III. Jesus multiplied "five loaves and two fish" to feed the multitudes (Matthew 14:13-21, Mark 6:31-44, Luke 9:12-17, John 6:1-14)? However, Jesus therein broke and handed out loaves but not fish (Matthew 14). Moreover, the Greek word for fish (ἰχθύας) is a code word for " Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior" (Akers 2000); and "fish (opsarion)" may also be a mistranslation of the Greek word for "fishweed (opson)" (Hicks 2019; Giron 2013). IV. Luke's story of Jesus helping Peter to catch fish and His eating fish to prove to the eleven disciples on the very night of his Resurrection that he's no ghost is clearly a forgery, for both the date and the venue contradict Mark and Matthew (cf. Vujicic 2016).   

 

 

Contrary to mainstream churches' belief, Jesus Christ was vegan. Instances of Jesus eating fish or helping His disciples to catch fish in the gospels are products of either misinterpretation or later interpolation.  

 

1. Jesus Desires Mercy, not Sacrifice

 

In Matthew 9:13 (NASB), Jesus admonished the Pharisees, “I desire compassion rather than sacrifice”. In Saying 87, the Gospel of Thomas, as translated and edited by Steven Davies (2002), Jesus said, "Wretched is a body depending on a body". Now, how can a body be dependent on another body? Only if the body eats the other body. Hence, Davies (2002) comes to the conclusion that Thomas is not stating that all bodies are "wretched", just bodies which are dependent on other dead bodies, in other words, meat, for food.

 

Jesus’s natural brother, James the Just, is reported to have been vegan. "Who and whatever James was, so was Jesus." (Eisenman 1997). Jesus cared about sparrows (Matthew 10:29), fowls (Matt. 6:26), lamb (John 13:6), sheep (Matt. 12:11), doves (Matt. 10:16), hens (Matt. 23:37), donkey (Matt. 21:7), mule(s) (Linzey and Dorothy 1998: 38-39 ;Linzey 2010: 60-61), asses and oxen (Luke 14:5), etc.

 

Jesus even died for animal liberation. In driving out from the Holy Temple those vendors who were buying and selling animals for cruel sacrifice (Matthew 21:12), Jesus disrupted the revenue stream of the chief priests and teachers of the law (Mark 11:18), and deeply offended them, resulting in his arrest, trial under Pontius Pilate, and crucifixion (Akers 2000:116-119).

 

2. Jesus Calls Peter to Catch Men, NOT Fish!

 

Meat-eating "Christians" often claim that Jesus was not vegan on the ground that He helped disciples like Simon Peter to catch fish both before crucifixion and after resurrection.

 

Admittedly, in Luke 5:1-11, Jesus miraculously aided Simon Peter, etc. to catch a huge net of fish, but He then asked them to FORSAKE their NETS, follow Him and CATCH MEN INSTEAD OF FISH. Matthew 4:18-20 and Mark 1:16-18 also record this story but without the first part, which was probably added by Luke himself to dramatize how Jesus recruited His first disciples.

 

Also, in John 21:1-15, a resurrected Jesus enabled 7 of His disciples to catch a large number of fish by the sea of Galilee, and had breakfast with them.  But this appearance is widely believed to be a later interpolation, which is neither mentioned in Matthew nor in Mark.  

 

In fact, not only was Jesus vegan but He died at least partly for the cause of animal liberation (Chen 2022; Chen 2020; Akers 2000).

 

 

2.1. Pre-Crucifixion "Fishing" Biblical Texts

 

Now let us examine in detail the pre-crucifixion "fishing" Biblical texts  in question:

 

18 As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon called Peter and his brother Andrew. They were casting a net into the lake, for they were fishermen. 19 “Come, follow me,” Jesus said, “and I will send you out to fish for people.” 20 At once they left their nets and followed him.  (Matthew 4:18-20 NIV)

 

16 As Jesus walked beside the Sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and his brother Andrew casting a net into the lake, for they were fishermen. 17 “Come, follow me,” Jesus said, “and I will send you out to fish for people.” 18 At once they left their nets and followed him. (Mark 1:16-18 NIV)

1 One day as Jesus was standing by the Lake of Gennesaret... He got into one of the boats, the one belonging to Simon... and taught the people from the boat.4 When he had finished speaking, he said to Simon, “Put out into deep water, and let down the nets for a catch.”...6 When they had done so, they caught such a large number of fish that their nets began to break...8 When Simon Peter saw this, he fell at Jesus’ knees and said, “Go away from me, Lord; I am a sinful man!” 9 ... 10 and so were James and John, the sons of Zebedee, Simon’s partners...Then Jesus said to Simon, “...from now on you will fish for people.” 11 So they pulled their boats up on shore, left everything and followed him. (Luke 5:1-11 NIV)

 

2.2. Catch (Transform) Humans instead of Fish

 

From the three passages quoted above, we can see that Mark and Matthew just mention Jesus commanding Peter and his brother Andrew to leave behind their fish nets, follow Him and fish for people. Luke is the only Gospel to describe Jesus helping Peter and his folk to catch a huge amount of fish before commanding them to leave everything and follow Him.

 

Apparently, the key message of this pre-crucifixion "fishing" story is, in particular, Jesus asking Simon Peter, etc. to catch (TRANSFORM) PEOPLE INSTEAD OF FISH; in general, Jesus telling people to QUIT their EARTHLY OCCUPATION if called upon by God to pursue a path otherwise.

 

The gist of the story is by no means Jesus performing a miracle to help Simon Peter and Andrew catching a huge net of fish. Indeed, even if this story is real, "The thing missed by most people when reading this story is that 'they forsook all, and follow him.' There is nothing about them taking the fish to market. They forsook the barbaric life they were living in order to follow the Lord Jesus", according to Ryan Hicks (2018).

 

Luke inserted the tale of Jesus miraculously helping His first disciples to catch a huge number of fish probably for the sake of making the whole thing more dramatic, juicy and intriguing.

 

 

3. Fish-hooking Never Meant by the VEGAN Christ!

 

According to Matthew 17:24-27, Jesus commands Peter to go hook a fish and dig a coin from her/his mouth in order to pay a temple tax which the tax collectors has asked Peter whether Jesus has paid or not. Some animal-eating Christians have seized upon this story as proof that Jesus was not a vegan. But this weird "miracle" could not be real because firstly, it was never executed; secondly, it's improbable that Jesus would have performed a complex miracle in order to pay his own tax; thirdly, how could Jesus, who died for animal liberation, have had the heart to order his disciple to do such a cruel thing to an innocent fish? This "miracle" is probably a sarcasm made by Jesus to cleverly deal with the tax collectors bent on forcing him to reveal whether He is an establishment man or a tax rebel. Alternatively, it may be the remnant of a lost-and-found-again legend found in the rabbinic tradition. 

 

3.1. The Temple Tax                                     

 

Now when they came to Capernaum, those who collected the two-drachma tax came to Peter and said, “Does your teacher not pay the two-drachma tax?”  He said, “Yes.” And when he came into the house, Jesus spoke to him first, saying, “What do you think, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth collect customs or poll-tax, from their sons or from strangers?” When Peter said, “From strangers,” Jesus said to him, “Then the sons are exempt. However, so that we do not offend them, go to the sea and throw in a hook, and take the first fish that comes up; and when you open its mouth, you will find a stater. Take that and give it to them for you and Me” (Matthew 17:24-27 NASB).

 

3.2. Why this so-called "miracle" could not be real

 

3.2.1. It's never fulfilled.

 

3.2.2. It's an implausible command.

What? Merely for the sake of getting a small coin for paying the temple tax, Jesus actually goes into the trouble of performing a complex miracle, which involves Peter going to the sea, throwing in a hook, catching a fish, and prying open her/his mouth to look for the coin? Isn't it a bit over the top?

 

3.2.3. Jesus never performed a miracle for personal gain or relief for his own needs.

 

3.2.4. It's unique with no close canonical parallel; it is only recorded in Matthew.

 

3.2.5. It was Jesus Himself who had asked Peter to quit fishing and follow Him

It was Jesus who had asked Peter to catch men instead of fish (Matthew 4:18-22). How come He now commands Peter to catch a fish?

 

3.2.6. Jesus was vegan.

"I desire mercy, not sacrifice!" said Jesus (Matthew 9:13 NIV). He even died for the liberation of animals. In driving out from the Holy Temple those vendors who were buying and selling animals for cruel sacrifice (Matthew 21:12), Jesus offended the chief priests and teachers of the law, for the reason that he was disrupting their revenue stream (cf. Akers 2000). Immediately afterwards, "the chief priests and the teachers of the law heard about this and began looking for a way to kill him, for they feared him because the whole crowd was amazed at his teachings" (Mark 11:18).

 

How could He, a dedicated animal rights activist, have had the heart to command someone to cruelly hook up an innocent fish, and pry open her/his mouth in order to obtain a coin for paying His own tax? So much the more, as His disciple, Peter must know that his teacher was a vegan. How come in this story, he was never astonished by his teacher's bizarre command?

 

3.3. A Sarcastic Joke Cracked by Jesus   

3.3.1. What is Temple Tax?

 

In Jesus's days, all Jewish males at the age of 19 or above were supposed to pay 2 drachmas (equal to a half shekel) for the Holy Temple's maintenance. This tax originated from the Old Testament law that required each male in Israel to pay a half shekel of "atonement money" for the upkeep of the tent of meeting (Exodus 30:11-16). Ultimately, it was regarded by the temple tax collectors as a kind of tax payable to God. Similar to most taxes, this temple tax was liked by few and vigorously opposed by some. Groups, for example, the Pharisees, approved of the tax, but many other Jews tried to evade it. For instance, Sadducees argued that the annual payment should be a voluntary gift rather than an imposed tax, from which priests were exempt; the Qumran community recognized the obligation in terms of Exodus 30:11-16 as a one-off contribution...

 

3.3.2. What Jesus Really Thinks about this Tax

 

Based on what Jesus said to Peter when the latter returned home after meeting the tax collectors, Jesus apparently thinks that they have no obligation to pay this tax:- "Jesus spoke... 'What do you think, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth collect customs or poll-tax, from their sons or from strangers?' When Peter said, 'From strangers,' Jesus said to him, 'Then the sons are exempt'” (Matthew 17:24-27 NASB). This is probably because of the following reasons:- Number one, to Jesus, we are all "children of God" (1 John 3:1 NIV). Number two, Jesus is the son of King David (Matthew 1:1). Number three, Jesus is "the son of the Living God" as He has had Peter confirmed to Him just recently (Matthew 17:15 NIV).

 

3.3.3. A Political Question

 

However, the tax collectors are here asking Jesus a tricky, political question just like the Pharisees subsequently, in order to trap Jesus, ask Him, "Is it right to pay the imperial tax to Caesar or not?" (Matthew 22:17 NIV). According to Long (1997), "They want to know if Jesus is loyal to the temple or not. The tax collectors are not asking if Jesus’ current tax bill is paid up; rather, they are asking whether he is an establishment man or a tax rebel, a part of the mainstream Judaism or on the fringe."  To borrow the words of Vinson (2013), "Jesus is in a Catch-22" and his reply could lead to a rift in his ministry.

 

3.3.4. A Response as Wise as Serpents

 

Thus, in order to avoid offending the tax collectors, Jesus cleverly responds to them with the strange command to Peter in the same way that Jesus later tactfully answered the Pharisees, “give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar, and give to God what belongs to God” (Matthew 22:21 NLT), which, in Liu's (2013) interpretation, means "everything belongs to God". This kind of tactfulness reminds us of "as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents" (Matthew 10:16 KJV).

 

In my interpretation, Jesus's awkward command to Peter is a sarcasm, which effectively says, "Ok, I will pay the temple tax if only my disciple Peter could find a shekel in the first fish caught by him today." But of course, Peter, familiar with his master's character, never actually goes catch a fish and open her/his mouth in an attempt to find the coin for paying the temple tax.

 

3.3.5. The Remnant of a Jewish Legend

 

Albright and Mann (1995) speculate that the narrative may be the remnant of a Jewish legend, "much on the lines of folk tales found in the rabbinic tradition of the lost-and-found-again variety."   

 

Quite a few ancient stories tell of finding something valuable in a fish that has been caught; the most well-known one is the recovery of Polycrates [d. 522 BCE]’s ring (Herodotus [d. 522 BCE] Histories 3.41-42), but there are similar Jewish stores in Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 119a; Genesis Rabbah 11:4, and other cultures provide numerous examples (France 2007: 671).


 

4. Jesus did not Distribute Fish

 

In the miracle of "five loaves and two fish," Jesus broke loaves but not fish (Matthew 14). The Greek word for fish (ἰχθύας) was a code word for " Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior" (Akers 2000); and "fish" may also be a mistranslation of the Greek word for "fishweed" (Hicks 2019; Giron 2013).

 

4.1. Jesus Broke Loaves but NOT Fish (Matthew 14) 


In the miracle of "Five loaves and two fish," which is narrated in Matthew 14:13-21, Mark 6:31-44, Luke 9:12-17, and John 6:1-14, Jesus neither condoned the eating of fish nor gave it to the masses (Matthew 14). As pointed out by John Vujicic (2009), if you carefully read the text of Matthew 14, you will see that Jesus only broke the LOAVES and gave ONLY THE LOAVES to the people. Twelve baskets were filled with the broken pieces of BREAD. When Jesus made a remark concerning the feeding of five thousand and four thousand, he all along merely made reference to the LOAVES of BREAD AND THE BASKETS which held the broken pieces of bread. Jesus never mentioned in any way the fishes.  

 

Likewise, Irenaes, in his book written in the 2nd century, twice states that Jesus fed the crowd with bread and nothing else (Against Heresies 2.22.3, 2.24.4; see Akers 2020:126). Arnobius narrates the miracle of the feeding of the 5000 in a similar manner, sans referring to fish (Against the Heathen 1, 46). Eusebius, too, talks about this event sans bringing up fish (Proof of the Gospel 3,4).


In John’s version even though reference is circuitously made to Jesus’s breaking of the fishes, the twelve baskets contained only the broken pieces of FIVE LOAVES. Obviously Jesus used only five loaves to feed the crowd and the reference to the fishes is a subsequent interpolation.

 

4.2. Fish vs Fishweed

 

As put by Raw Matt (2019), "Even IF the manuscript is correct, the translation is erroneous." The "fish" in the miracle concerned is probably a mistranslation of a kind of dried seaweed. As found by the author's own research, in the Greek version of John 6:9, the word for "fish" is ὀψάριον (opsarion), which according to Thayer's Greek Lexicon (STRONGS NT 3795), is a "diminutive from ὄψον [opson] (cf. Curtius, § 630) i.e. whatever is eaten with bread, especially food boiled or roasted; hence, specifically), fish"; and according to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, is "a relish to other food (as if cooked sauce), i.e. (specially), fish (presumably salted and dried as a condiment)". So opsarion is not necessarily real fish, but may be just a relish.

 

In this vein, after going through hundreds of ancient Greek writings, Ryan Hicks (2019:148) noted opsarion employed in many ways, including directly denoting plant life. For instance, 800 years before Jesus, Homer employed opson, the origin of opsarion, in his epic The Illiad, book 11, section 630, putting down:

 

"She first drew before the twain a table, fair, with feet of cyanus, and well-polished, and set thereon a basket of bronze, and therewith an onion, a relish [ὄψον, opson] for their drink, and pale honey, and ground meal of sacred barley..."

 

Hicks (2019:148) argues that "'fish' can refer to any aquatic life, including the fishweed, seaweed, and other aquatic plants that commonly made up the opsarion/relishes.... In Homer's reference it was an onion that made up the bulk of the relish."

 

Similarly, Giron (2013) points out that "dried fishweed would be more likely in a basket with bread, and fishweed remains a popular food among Palestinian peasants like the people to whom Jesus was speaking."

 

Moreover, according to Giron (2013), this helps explain Matthew 4:18-20, where Jesus gets his first disciples by telling some fishermen to give up their profession and follow him. Jesus even says to them "I will make you a fisher of men". Could this be Jesus was having them give up their barbaric line of work to do something more righteous? It may sound absurd, but it starts to make a little more sense when you take it in the same context as the story of feeding five thousand, where the disciples never even considered trying to catch some fish, despite being beside the sea. Why didn't they go fishing? Did Jesus teach it was wrong to eat fish? 

 

4.3. Ichthys = Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior

A noteworthy observation concerning the fish symbol: The Greek word for fish (ἰχθύας/Ichthys) was an acronym or code word for " Ἰησοῦς Χρῑστός Θεοῦ Υἱός Σωτήρ [Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior]", popular among early Christians for the sake of avoiding persecution (cf. Akers 1989; Regenstein 1991; Altar n.d.). And in the Greek version of Mark 6:41, Matthew 14:19, and Luke 9:16, the word for fish as in "the five loaves and two fish" is none other than ἰχθύας!

 

5. Jesus Eating Fish after Resurrection is Fake News!


Luke's story of Jesus eating fish to prove to the eleven disciples at evening on the day of his Resurrection that he's no ghost is clearly a forgery, for both the date and the venue contradict Mark and Matthew.


Luke 24: 39-43 and John 21:1-14 are the only places in the New Testament that mention Jesus eating meat. According to Luke, Jesus ate fish (ἰχθύος/Ichthys) in front of 11 disciples in Jerusalem on the first night of his Resurrection: "Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones... And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat? And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb. And he took it, and did eat before them." (Luke 24: 39-43 KJV)

However, according to the Gospel of Mark 16: 7 and 14:28, Jesus had long told his disciples that he would go to Galilee upon resurrection. According to Mark 16: 9 -19, Jesus revealed himself thrice after resurrection, the first time to Mary Magdalene; the second time to two disciples on the road; the third time to all the 11 disciples, presumably in Galilee. According to Matthew 28:16, the eleven disciples went up a mountain in Galilee as specified by Jesus, where Jesus met them the first time as well as the last time after He rose from the dead. So the Gospel of Luke's claim that Jesus ate fish in front of the disciples in Jerusalem on the very night of his Resurrection is wrong in terms of both date and venue. Apparently, it is fabricated and not to be believed (cf. Vujicic 2016).

 

5.1. Fishy Story Interpolated to Combat "Heresies"

 

According to Akers (2000:128), this fishy story was interpolated by Luke (Paul the anti-vegan, self-proclaimed apostle's underling) in order to combat veganism as wells as "the idea of the 'docetic Christ' -- the idea, held by certain Gnostics such as Marcion, that Jesus had no real body," being just a phantom or a ghost. The consumption of fish is a particular demonstration by Yeshua that He is no phantom:- "Touch me and see; a ghost does not have flesh and bones, as you see I have” (Luke 24:39 NIV).

 

6. Jesus did not Supply Fish to His Disciples at the Sea of Tiberias

Similarly, the report of John 21:1-14 cannot be right and Peter accompanied by several of his fellow disciples could not have been catching fish at the sea of Tiberias (John 21:1) after Jesus’ rise from death. Jesus did not supply fish to his disciples there because that showing up, in accordance with Matthew's and Mark's account, never occurred. (Interestingly, the word in the Greek version for fish as in John 21:13 is  ὀψάριον [opsarion], which as mentioned earlier, could refer to a dried Mediterranean seaweed.)

 

Further, John, just like Luke, alleges that Jesus’ foremost showing up occurred in the evening of the first day, while the door was barred where the disciples were grouped together. John asserts that this was the earliest showing up and that Thomas was absent. It's not until seven days after that Jesus purportedly showed up to his disciples again while Thomas was there, too. This fails to concur even with Luke who says that all eleven disciples were there when Jesus manifested himself to them in the Holy City after rising from the dead (cf. Vujicic 2016).

 

Again, as aformentioned, fish (Ichthys) was a well known mystical symbol amidst these early Christians for "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior" (Akers 1989; Regenstein 1991). Given how the early Christians employed the term, there is therefore good historical evidence for the argument that all of the "fish stories" that managed to get into the gospels were intended to be taken symbolically rather than literally.

 

7. Conclusion

 

In conclusion, "God is love" (1 John 4:8 KJV); Jesus is compassion (Mark 6:34); Jesus was/is a Vegan Christ. He did not eat fish or any other kind of meat while living as a human being on earth. He even died for the sake of liberating innocent creatures of God. All those biblical stories about Jesus consuming fish, multiplying/distributing fish, and aiding/directing His disciples to catch fish are fishy business, products of "the lying pen of the scribes" (Jeremiah 8:8). Let's all follow Jesus' example of compassion and go vegan.


Bibliography


Akers, Keith (2000). The Lost Religion of Jesus. Lagos: Lantern Books.

 

Albright, W.F. and Mann, C.S. (1995). Matthew. Introduction, Translation, and Notes. New Haven: Yale University.

 

Altar, Ted (n.d.). "Did Christ at Least Eat Fish?" Ivu. org. (https://ivu.org/history/christian/christ_veg.html)

 

Bbvulf (2013). "Did Christ declare all foods clean? Misunderstandings regarding Mark 7:19" (https:// biblethingsinbibleways. wordpress. com /2013/05/12/did-christ-declare-all-foods-clean-misunderstandings-regarding-mark-719/) 

 

Bean, James (2018). "Evidence That Jesus and The Original Aramaic Christians Were Vegetarians". (https://medium.com/sant-mat-meditation-and-spirituality/evidence-that-jesus-and-the-original-aramaic-christians-were-vegetarians-b8784ac42506)

 

Beer, JM de (2014). "Did Jesus Really Declare All Food Clean?" (https://www.academia.edu/38821408/DID_JESUS_REALLY_DECLARE_ALL_FOOD_CLEAN)

 

Chen, Chapman (2023). "Fish-hooking Never Meant by the VEGAN Christ!" HKBNews, Feb. 12. https://www.hkbnews.net/post/fish-hooking-never-meant-by-the-vegan-christ-by-dr-chapman-chen

 

Chen, Chapman (2022a). "Jesus Calls Peter to Catch Men, NOT Fish. Go Vegan!" HKBNews, Oct. 10. https://www.hkbnews.net/post/jesus-calls-peter-to-catch-men-not-fish-go-vegan-by-chapman-chen-hkbnews              

 

Chen, Chapman (2022b). "Jesus did not Eat Meat. Go Vegan!" HKBNews, Mar.15. https://www.hkbnews.net/post/jesus-did-not-eat-meat-go-vegan-by-chapman-chen-hkbnews                    

 

Chen, Chapman (2021a). "Did Jesus Declare All Foods Clean? Go Vegan!" HKBNews, Aug. 30. https://www.hkbnews.net/post/did-jesus-declare-all-foods-clean-go-vegan-by-chapman-chen-hkbnews

 

Chen, Chapman (2021b). ”Jesus Asks us to Serve the Animals. Go Vegan!" HKBNews, July 10 (https://www.hkbnews.net/post/jesus-asks-us-to-serve-the-animals-go-vegan-by-chapman-chen-hkbnews)

 

Chen, Chapman (2021c). "Follow Christ's Words n Love your Neighbors, includ. Animals." HKBNews, June 15 (https://www.hkbnews.net/post/follow-christ-s-words-n-love-your-neighbors-includ-animals-go-vegan-by-chapman-chen-hkbnews )

 

 

Davies, Stevan, ed. & trans. (2002). The Gospel of Thomas. Boulder: Shambhala Publications.

 

Dixon, Brad (2018). "Was Jesus a Vegetarian?" Everfit, Apr. 11. (https://www.everfit.co.nz/articles/jesus-kick-arse-animal-rights-activist)

 

Erwin, Jane (2010). "The Real Forbidden Fruit is Meat". Ogden: Sunstone 2011 Utah Symposium and Workshops, August 6. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7EBfPhSJFXE&t=2750s)

 

France, R.T. (2007). The Gospel of Matthew (The New International Commentary on the New Testament). New York: Eerdmans.

 

Giron, Denis (2013). "Vegetarianism in the Bible". ISKCON News, Mar. 30. (https://iskconnews.org/vegetarianism-in-the-bible/)

 

Hicks, Ryan (2019). Why Every Christian Should Be A Vegan. n.p.: Ryan Hicks.

 

James, Montague Rhode (1924). The Gospel of the Ebionites in The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 8-10. (http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/gospelebionites.html)

 

Linzey, Andrew (1994). Animal Theology. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.

 

Linzey, Andrew (2007). Creatures of the Same God -- Explorations in Animal Theology. Winchester: Winchester UP.

 

Long, Thomas G. (1997). Matthew (Westminster Bible Companion). London: WJK.

 

Matt, Raw (2019). "What does the Bible have to say about diet? Part 1". Imalovebug. com, Jan. 17. (https://imalovebug.com/blogs/blog/what-does-the-bible-have-to-say-about-diet)

 

Ouseley, Gideon Jasper Richard, ed. (1904). The Gospel of the Holy Twelve. (http://www.thenazareneway.com/ght_table_of_contents.htm)

 

Regenstein, Lewsi (1991). Replenish the Earth: The History of Organized Religion's Treatment of Animals and Nature. New York: Crossroad Pub Co.

 

Rosen, Steven (1987). Food for the Spirit: Vegetarianism and the World Religions. New York: Bala Books.

 

Saba (2006). The Lord Christ Jesus was a Vegan. Bloominton: AuthorHouse.

 

Vinson, Chandler (2013). "Fishing for Taxes (Matthew 17:27)". TrivialDevotion, Oct. 9.  http://trivialdevotion.blogspot.com/2013/10/fishing-for-taxes-matthew-1727.html

 

Vujicic, John (2016). "Did Jesus Eat Fish". (https://www.all-creatures.org/discuss/didjesuseatfish-jv.html)

 

York, Tripp and Alexis-Baker, Andy, eds. (2012). A Faith Embracing All Creatures. Eugene: Cascade Books.

 

---------------------------------------------

 

 

201 views0 comments

Commentaires


Post: Blog2_Post
bottom of page