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曾焯文:美國獨立宣言與今日香江 Chapman Chen: US Declaration of Independence and Contemp. HK -- HKBNews

Updated: Aug 1, 2019



美國獨立宣言一七七六年七月四日通過,當日定為獨立紀念日。宣言列舉英國如何壓迫美國人,導致獨立革命,對照當今香港,竟有不少雷同!首先,美國人同港人一樣,本來只求自治,不堪殖民地主殘酷壓迫,才生獨立之念。以下先引宣言金句,再配上香港相關情況。先行撮要,再加詳述(末附曾焯文全譯本及英文原文)。


一。「殺我同胞」一九年反送中以來,六人自殺抗議;香港警察對準市民頭面開槍射。一四年雨傘革命及其後抗爭事件,拘控香港政治犯約三百人。


二。「於各邦駐常備軍」中國在港長駐解放軍,一九年七月三十一日,發佈官方宣傳影片,模擬鎮壓大埔路遊行示威。


三。「教唆蠻夷,對付我...居民」二零一九年七二一慘案,元朗西鐵站內外,白衣暴徒無差別恐襲香港市民,多人受傷,香港警察袖手旁觀。中共向香港單方面輸出新殖民,每年達八萬人,包括每日一百五十名單程證、大陸專才、留學生,滲透香港各界,掠奪資源。


四。「押吾民往海外受審」一九年港府強推送中惡法。一五年,銅鑼灣書店老闆被中國官方人員跨境擄至中國幽禁。


五。「食我民脂民膏...掠奪我海域」林鄭月娥明日大嶼計劃,至少動用庫房一萬億港元,起千七頃高危人工島。其他大白象工程,如港珠澳大橋、港鐵沙中綫、中環灣仔繞道、機場第三條跑道、廣深港高鐵香港段,均大而無當,勞民傷財。


六。「一再解散各邦眾議院」香港政府一六年DQ六位民選立法會議員,前後又一再因立法會參選人的政治立場,而取消其資格。


七。「擴大疆域...引入...極權統治」大灣區消融香港邊界;西九高鐵一地兩檢,引入中國法律。


八。「拒絕批准對公眾極其有益而必須之法律。」中國無限期押後香港人雙普選。


九。「剝奪吾民由陪審團陪審之權利」雨傘革命後,無陪審團的區域法院政治犯定罪率,遠高於有陪審團的高等法院。


十。「終止我立法職能。」人大操控基本法解釋權,屢次濫用,例如一六年梁游宣誓案。


全文詳述:


美國獨立宣言乃係美國至重要的官方文件,主要由湯瑪士‧積佛臣 (Thomas Jefferson) 起草,一七七六年七月四日第二次大陸會議通過,當日定為獨立紀念日。獨立宣言列舉美國脫英獨立原因,亦即英國如何虧待北美殖民地民眾。究竟獨立宣言所述與香港現狀有何異同?以下各段將先引宣言金句(曾焯文中譯),然後配上香港相關情況。


緣起: 本來只求自治

美國獨立戰爭初期,北美十三英屬殖民地,本來無意要求完全脫離英國殖民統治,只要求更多自治,然而,當時英政府及王室認定這些要求為叛亂,雙方先始爆發戰爭。「我等......多次...提醒英國...懇請乃念同宗同種,棄絕掠奪行為...然而,英方對公義及血緣呼聲充耳不聞。我等唯有宣告與之分離」。

香港人本來只要求一國兩制,好似英治時期生活方式不變,但九七後中國博命侵蝕香港自治自由:肆意人大釋法;以金融地產霸權將香港樓價屋租推致全球首位,令貧者無立錐之地;以香港克警,殘酷鎮壓和平集會;以公安惡法,濫捕濫告重判政治異見人士;以普教中消滅香港粵語文化;夾硬取消民選議員資格;全面滲透香港各界,包括教育界、新聞界、政界、商界、宗教界;以紅線論壓抑香港言論自由;以大白象工程,掠奪香港儲備;以跨境計劃模糊廣東邊界;剝奪香港雙普選權利;如此方令不少香港青年產生與中國切割的念頭。


一,「殺我同胞

一四年雨傘革命及一六年魚蛋革命後,拘控香港政治犯達百幾人。一九年反送中以來,六人自殺抗議。六一二、七二一、七二八等示威事件,香港警察對準香港人頭面開槍射催淚彈噴胡椒毒霧,拘控政治犯一百八十幾人。


二,「太平時期,未經我立法局同意,於各邦駐常備軍。」

一九年七月三十一日,駐港解放軍發佈官方宣傳影片,模擬鎮壓大埔路遊行示威。根據基本法,中國有權在港駐軍,但除非香港特別行政區政府主動要求救災,否則解放軍不得著制服周圍行。然而,最近解放軍軍機降落香港赤鱲角機場,十月中駐港部隊又未經申請,出動清理颱風過後的塌樹及垃圾。


三,「教唆無情印第安蠻夷,對付我...居民

元朗七二一慘案,白衣暴徒在元朗西鐵站內外,對香港市民無差別恐怖襲擊,香港警察袖手旁觀,多人受傷。

中共來港新殖民,有錢的就炒高樓價,無錢的就搶公屋,令本土基層無樓容身。這些新殖民似乎享有治外特權,在公眾場所大小便喧嘩而不遭檢控,甚至連中國遊客都可在法庭影相而毋須坐監交罸款。這些新殖民不尊重香港本土風俗價值觀。殺人犯施君龍二千年放火燒死入境處職員,一一年獲中國批准來港定居,曾公然鬧香港民主自由抗爭者係狗。又有些新殖民長期在旺角、尖沙咀,狂跳大媽舞,品味惡俗,騷擾公共安寧。港府為配合中國殖民香港,以及遷就新殖民,乃威迫利誘香港學校普教中,剝奪港人受母語教育人權。


四, 「以莫須有罪名,押吾民往海外受審

一九年香港政府強推逃犯條例(送中惡法/引渡條例),條例一旦通過,任何踏足香港的人,港府皆可名正言順,送去中國拘禁受審,而中國的所謂法治,臭名遠播。

一五年,出版中共政治禁書的銅鑼灣書店老闆,李你、波桂民海等人,被中國官方人員跨境擄至中國幽禁。


五,「派...官員...食我民脂民膏...掠奪我海域,蹂躪沿岸」

香港特首林鄭月娥明日大嶼計劃,要動用香港庫房一萬億港元,在交椅洲隔籬,起千七頃人工島,不少專家,例如前天文台長林超英,都認為有關人工島造價不合理,而且一遇颱風,岌岌可危。其他大白象工程,如港珠澳大橋、港鐵沙中綫、中環灣仔繞道、機場第三條跑道、廣深港高鐵香港段,工程均出現嚴重超支及延誤。


六,「英王...一再解散各邦眾議院

香港政府一六年DQ六位民選立法會議員,前後又一再因立法會參選人的政治立場而取消其資格。


七,「鄰省...專制政府,擴大疆域,於此處...引入...極權統治」「取消我憲章,廢除我...法律,根本改變...政府體制」

粵港澳大灣區消融香港邊界,要香港融入中國廣東省。西九高鐵一地兩檢,將中國法律引入香港九龍市中心,取代該處香港法律。


八,「英王拒絕批准對公眾極其有益而必須之法律...拒絕批准照顧大區公民之其他法例,除非區內公民肯放棄立法局代表權,而代表權對吾民無比珍貴,唯暴君畏之懼之。」

中國無限期押後香港人雙普選,除非香港人接受有篩選的選舉,而真普選對香港人好珍貴,只有獨裁中國方畏之懼之。


九(一),「許多案件,剝奪吾民由陪審團陪審之權利

雨傘革命及魚蛋革命後,無陪審團的區域法院政治犯定罪率,遠高於有陪審團的高等法院,區域法院無陪審團多年來備受法律界評擊。


九(二),「控制法官職位俸祿,迫使法官唯命是從。」

香港法官須宣誓效忠中華人民共和國香港特別行政區,終審法院所有法官須由行政長官任命,徵得立法會同意,並報全國人大常委會。

香港法官為保職位,博取升級,對異見示威人士,定罪率偏高,判刑極重,例如梁頌恆、遊蕙禎一六年身為議員,在立法會內,前往開會地點,竟然被控非法集結,而罪名成立,判監四個月。有如港獨派青年領袖梁天琦,因涉及一六年初二旺角警民衝突,而被控暴動,罪名成立,判監六年。不同案但同一事件被告人七十歲陳和祥,暴動罪名成立,被判三年零五個月徒刑。有些暴動案法官判案,涉嫌違反聯合國人權宣言無罪推定原則,譬如楊家倫案,法官特別留意到被告哨牙及眼神與相片犯案者相似,即當被告為相中人。


十,「終止我立法職能,宣稱事無大小,均有權為我立法。」

人大屢次濫用基本法解釋權,例如一六年梁游宣誓案法庭未裁決,全國人大就主動釋法,規定議員宣誓無效後,不得重新宣誓,而且釋法還有追溯力,結果梁游兩位民選議員被法庭褫奪議員席位。又如零四年將政改程序,由三部曲改為五部曲,無限期押後香港雙普選。一七年習近平主席來港,監督香港特首宣誓就職,嚴重警告香港人,勿觸港獨紅線,壓抑香港言論自由。


十一,「置吾人於憲法以外司法管轄範圍,不符我方法律」

本年七月十四號,中聯辦法律部長王振民:「凡是基本法沒有規定的問題,憲法的有關規定自動適用於香港。」此話違反中英聯合聲明及基本法規定的一國兩制。根據基本法第十八條,除了基本法附件三列明的全國法律,其他全國法律不會在香港實施。


Pic credit: John Trumbull (1819)


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美國獨立宣言一七七六年七月四日大陸會議

美利堅十三合眾邦一致宣言天下大勢,一旦某民族要與另一民族,解除所有政治束縛,根據自然法則,王天授權,以獨立平等身份,躋身國際,則為尊重輿論,必須宣佈驅使獨立之因由。吾人以為下列真理不言而喻:上帝創世,人人平等,造物予人不可剝奪之權利,包括生存自由,追求幸福。

為保此等權利,世人建立政府,而政府之正當權力,須經所統治者同意。無論任何時候,任何政體,破壞此等目標,公民即有權利義務,更廢政體,建立新政府,而新政府所依賴之原則及權力架構,務使公民認為最能促進其安全幸福。

為審慎起見,建立已久之政府,不應因瑣碎暫時之原因而變更;根據過往所有經驗,任何苦難,只要尚能忍受,世人都寧願忍受,而不欲為伸冤,而廢除歷來習慣之政體。然而,假使政府長期濫用職權,巧取豪奪,迫使公民屈服於專制淫威之下,公民即有權利義務,推翻政府,重新保障未來安居樂業。

此地一眾殖民地啞忍旣久,目下被迫變更昔日政府體制。當今大英國王,一向巧取豪奪,志在獨裁專制,統治此地各邦。為證斯言不虛,且將事實公諸於世。

英王拒絕批准對公眾極其有益而必須之法律。不少法案,刻不容緩,非常重要,但英王禁止轄下法官批淮,除非先行擱置,待其恩淮,然一旦擱置,卻又完全置之不理。

英王拒絕批准照顧大區公民之其他法例,除非區內公民肯放棄立法局代表權,而代表權對吾民無比珍貴,唯暴君畏之懼之。

英王召集各方立法團體開會之處,遠離公共檔案保存庫,奇離而不爽,目的無非令其疲於奔命,被逼就範。

各方眾議院堅定反對英王侵犯人權,英王即一再解散各邦眾議院。

解散眾議院後,長期拒絕補選,然而立法權不可或廢,於是歸由公民行使,期間各邦內憂外患,危機重重,包括外敵入侵,內部動亂。

力阻各邦人口增長;阻撓外籍歸化法案通過;拒絕通過法案鼓勵移民;並且提高佔領新地條件。拒絕批准建立司法權之法律,妨礙司法工作。 控制法官職位俸祿,迫使法官唯命是從。 濫任新官,派大批官員滋擾吾民,食我民脂民膏。 太平時期,未經我立法局同意,於各邦駐常備軍。

令軍隊自外於文官,凌駕其上。 勾結外人,置吾人於憲法以外司法管轄範圍,不符我方法律,並且批准其偽立法行為:於我方駐大軍;

以偽審訊,包庇殺我居民的英兵,免受懲罰;

截斷我同世界各地之貿易;未經我同意,強行徵稅;許多案件,剝奪吾民由陪審團陪審之權利;以莫須有罪名,押吾民往海外受審;

廢鄰省英國法律自由制度,建立專制政府,擴大疆域,樹立榜樣,當為工具,於此處各殖民地,引入同樣極權統治;

取消我憲章,廢除我最寶貴的法律,根本改變各邦政府體制; 終止我立法職能,宣稱事無大小,均有權為我立法。 宣佈我方不再受其保護,向我方開戰,放棄此地政務。 掠奪我海域,沿岸蹂躪,燒毀城鎮,殺我同胞。 此際正運送大批外國僱傭兵,來到恣意屠戮,殘民以逞,兇狠卑劣處,即使野蠻時代,亦瞠乎其後,完全不配做文明國家元首。

強制我等公海被俘之同胞,執起武器,對付自己國家;令其成為劊子手,殘殺自己親友,又或死於親友之手。

於我方煽動內亂,竭力教唆無情印第安蠻夷,對付我邊境居民。眾所周知,印第安人作戰,不分男女老幼,是非曲直,格殺勿論。

上述壓迫階段,我等次次皆以最謙遜言辭,懇請糾正。 然而,一次又一次請願,換來一次又一次傷害。英王一言一行,俱暴君所為,有何資格,統領自由民族?

我等並非未曾念及英國弟兄;也曾多次警告其立法機關,幸勿延伸無理司法管轄權至我方;提醒英國留意我等於此地移民定居情況;訴諸其天生公義雅量,懇請乃念同宗同種,棄絕掠奪行為,以免破壞雙方關係往來。然而,英方對公義及血緣呼聲充耳不聞。我等唯有宣告與之分離,從此對英猶如對其他民族:戰時當敵人,平時當朋友。

因此,我等美利堅合眾邦代表,於此大陸會議聚首一堂,以一眾殖民地公民名義,經其授權,向無上裁判申訴吾人正直意圖,同時鄭重宣佈:此等合眾殖民地,名正言順成為獨立自由國家,茲解除對英國王室一切效忠義務,理直氣壯,完全斷絕與大不列顛王國一切政治聯繫。身為獨立自由國家,此等邦國有全權宣戰媾和,結盟通商,並且採取獨立國家有權採取之一切其他行動,參與其他一切事務。吾人為支持本宣言,堅定信靠王天上帝庇佑,彼此發誓,甘願押上身家性命財產,與共神聖名聲。 · IN CONGRESS JULY 4 1776The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.


The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:


For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these ColoniesFor taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. — And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

Chapman Chen


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